Saturday, 12 March 2011

Origin& History

Origin& History

Yellapus are belongs to warrior class originated in the Rajasthan and Gujarath. These people are also called vellapus and Yellapis.The yellepi denotes the singular form and vellapu is the earliest name of the caste.In fact most of the elders recollect that their ancestors are from the surroundings of Delhi. The history of Vaageshwari Maatha temple in Rajasthan reveals the story of Vellapus. They moved from rajasthan to many places and got themselves transformed to fit into the region they moved. Yellapus started migrating from Rajasthan and Gujarath to Utterpradesh(near Delhi),possibly in the meerut district.They were later spread over Central India, which is now, Jharkand and Madhyapradesh.Cosequently to vidharba region in Maharastra.From there, they migrated to Kakatiya dynasty to work in different cadres. Hence, one can see people from this caste only in the areas of Maharastra, Northern Karnataka, Telangana, Jharkand and Coastal Andhra. In the recent past they are noticed in Tamilnadu, kerala and orissa also.

After entering in to the Andhraprasedsh , they moved to different districts on their jobs as vassals and staff of kakatiyas.After the downfall of kakatiyas, some people moved to Rachakonda dynasty and some people moved to Vijayanagara kingdom.During their period they moved to Rayalaseema and Karnataka.Later to kalinga area and Tamilnadu.In tamilnadu, vellapus have shown substantial impact there by having villages,plants on their community and family names.

 people still present mobilized at Bobbili and migrated to near by districts after downfall of Bobbili.Subsequently, they migrated to Bonagiri via khammam and Warangal districts.Finally,they have reached to karimnagar and Adilabad.
There are many views on the origin and history of yellapus.In absence of historical evidences, this short story is written on the basis of oral stories.

Hence,I give my analysis basing on the stories told by caste elders, basing on the gotras, surnames of yellapus and matters revealed in my research as follows:

Prior to that i submit the methodology i followed for writing this as follows:

The method I followed

The method I followed is simple. I used to  the information from my father sri.B. Ganga Ram, uncle sri.Lakkakula Rajeshwar Rao, and other relatives. The data collection used to happen at the times of functions with relatives. Most important persons are senior citizens of the caste. To be frank, it is very much troubling with this busy job to collect data. Fortunately, I was a student of History and Telugu, with a specialization in ancient Indian history. It becomes very easy for me to refer the books relating to historical aspects and coming to logical conclusions.

I have to verify the names of the gotras and surnames. The knowledge in the languages also helped me a lot. I could deduce some information out of the surnames and gotras. The information revealed out my research has made me to write further.

In the end, I have searched the Internet to find out certain aspects such as anabheri prabhakar rao, family surnames, etc. However, I could find some deficiencies, inaccuracies in the information available in the internet about the yellapus. I have information that some people are certainly trying to build the history of Yellapus. Most unfortunately, I have no time left to discuss with them or share the information.

The way left for me is that I have to publish it first in website and seek the additional information from other people of the caste. Later I have to update the information as and when time permits and may be after publishing the two other books on other aspects.

The working and accessing of information at nirmal and Suryapet helped me a lot. My personal relations at Warangal district and north coastal area also helped me to elaborate certain aspects. 

Once this yellapucharitha is published on the web, many people provided information over the phone.kaluvala karunakar rao, who is now staying in U.S. has provided wonderful information especially to resolve the issue of migrating time from bobbili.Basing on that locally I have gathered information in suryapet.

Rapole brothers have also provided wonderful information and I know them from chinthapandu harish and one of the brothers is well known person to me and a near relative.They have thrown light on Gadis and attitude of yellapus.

Sri.Narsing Rao uncle, uncle of my cousin has unearthed the unknown stories of Bandala lingapur, etc. Astonishingly, fallen emperor, who always crticises certain aspects of my history( initially I felt angry) also provided wonderful information on History of karimnagar.

Consequently, sri.Penchal Rajaiah on the request of sri.Rachakonda nursing rao has provided wonderful information on cultural aspects.
Again the help has come from U.S. in the form of Smt. Madhuri Vodnala.She revealed about the relations between velamas and Yellapus in north coastal area.

For finding out Gotras and native places my Brother-in-law Sri.Ganapathi Rao Saini helped alot.He gather ed the information and dissiminated to me.

Later sri.Jangal Krishnamohan Rao has revealed the story relating to his family.It has also revealed the way yellapus worked under Nizam.

During my visit to vishakapatnam, I could observe the yellapus in Gavara caste. I almost unearthed the ancient relations between these castes.It also provided some epigraphical evidences on dadi families

Over a period of time, to verify information or to gain it,i visited some places.Interestingly, on my visit to tamilnadu, i gained certain information and processed it and published.It is a tremendous information.Similarly, i moved in some parts of Andhra pradesh too.


There are no historical evidences are available about this caste such as coins, scriptures, rock edicts, etc. Even nobody has mentioned about them in their books. So,it is natural that information may be wrong to an extent.It is not astonishing that many developed castes and events also lack the historical citations.

In absence of historical evidences, I am forced to deduce certain things such as migrations, etc.,from the surnames, gotras. Some times the gotras are not relevant, as it is given to the dependents also, similarly the surnames.

What i observed is that there duplications for some things.For instance, kosna is a town in Poland and Croatia. So,what we have to consider is a matter of discretion.So many things are considered on the basis of logical conclusion.It is an effort to compile the information.At a later stage some one may take responsibility to analyze further.

Over a period of time, many people have provided very useful information.All that availability is Oral history.But it is necessary to upkeep the oral history, as next generation may loose some percentage of facts , if not brought in to the book form.

Etymology of Caste name
The meaning of yellapus is usually explained that as they have protected the borders, they got that name. The surname of Ganta supports this view, where these are kept on the border of the village near bell.
It is also said that they protected all the others.(elleran). ela means first and apu means to stop in telugu. It means they have to stop the early storm of enemies.

Here we have to examine the ancient name of yellapus. It is vellapu but not yellapu. The vellapu is certainly a north Indian term. Ethymology of this word vellapu may be velluva+ap(u), which means to stop the storm of army(by a respectable person). It shows their capability and bravery. Over a period of time the corruption of words uses to take place, when it enters in other language, with possible similar meaning. In this instant case, in Telugu, the word ellaran+ apu (or) élan+ apu suggests the same meaning of stopping the storm of enemy armies. The word of ellalu kapaduvadu does not match and it may be due to illusion that yellapus certainly protected the borders and assumed this meaning, which is not correct.

Interestingly, we can also find one surname which reveals the meaning of standing in the forefront of the army is Salvadi.Salva means army in Hindhi.Adi means in front.The meaning is Standing in the front line of the army.There is also one surname Aadi, which means first.This may be also relates to standing in the forefront of the Army.Thus, surnames also provides proof for unveiling the ethymology of caste name.

The fact is that the casualties amongst this caste are more and they are in very few number.It supports the fact that they stood in front in the army and many of them lost their lives.The hero stone at elagandula and veerapuja among this caste confirms(pooja to died war heros  at young age )  the front line soldier concept and their sacrifying nature.This is also evident from the wars such as Bobbili war and war between kakatiyas and delhi during prataparudra.
Let us also try to find out the ethymology of Vellapu also.Vellapu may be originated from its latin route word Vel, which means (logic) The  symbol used to represent the inclusive or logical connective. It also means a veil in Latin. We have the conclusive proofs that some of Yellapu families have definitely migrated from the central Asia, Serbia, Russia,etc., which are believed to be the connecting areas. Avari, kosna, kaluvala, and padala surnames, kashyapa gotra families are such families. Hence, the vellapu people might be the people belongs to the connecting areas or people who are connected. Interestingly, Yellapu women also used the veil  till 40 to 50 years ago.Thus, they may be also people who used the viel. However, it is clear that these central Asian tribes used the viel for their women during their stay at Rajasthan and some continued later also.

The word of vellapu is continuing as surname to some people in warangal district suggests that 
vellapu has corrupted , only after leaving the warangal only, as we find many surname of yellapu in Rayalaseema and Nothern coastal area of A.p name. In the recent past i observed a village by name Yellagiri, possibly on the name of Yellapu caste.It is between Pochampally X road and Chautuppal, on the starting point of Rachakonda hills.They may be worked at this place to save the king from the onslaught of Golkonda armies.Thus, we can presume that Vellapu started transforming to Yellapu from the Rachakonda hills.But ,vellapu also continued as the early direct migrants to vijayanagara from warangal would have been liked to be recognised so.It is also assumed that the direct migrants would have went to tamilnadu, as these people were preferred and Vellapu surname was upkept there.

The name of vellappan and vellappu also exists in the list of castes of Tamilnadu.It confirms that even during the vijayanagara period also the name of the caste is vellapu .Recently i found during my trip to Tamilnadu that one vellakulam village is existing, possibly on the name of Vellapu caste in tirunalvelvi district.It reveals that vellapu was existing even after vijayanagara period.

To conclude, the word vellapu is started converted in to yellapu in Rachakonda area and  in Rayalaseema area and  in the north coastal area and even in telangana .However, it is continued as vellapu in tamilnadu. As per the opinion of my father, still some people call the yellapu people as vellapu also.In the tribal areas of north coastal area it is yellapi, denoting the singular form and low status of living.

Traces of North
The ancient inscription believed to be available revealing the story of vellapus is at Vageshwarimatha temple.It is accepted by many that yellapus are of warrior class at Rajasthan and reached Delhi surroundings. The worship of Brahmadeva and Saraswathimatha has been prevalent in Rajasthan area.Vageshwari is the other form of saraswathimatha.The inscription mentioned about vellapus because these people would have been ordent devotees and donated something for the temple.

The traces of Rajasthani names and places in the form of surnames are still in vogue in Yellapus, such as Avari, Gujjeti, penchala and saini. Among this Gujjeti and Avari are the names of clans among the Gujjers, penchala is a Gujjer dominated village and saini is a name of a kshatriya clan dominant in Rajasthan and Gujarath. The migration patterns and family names also proves that Yellapus have connection with Gurjara-pratihara dynasty and their families.
The gotras of Janakanuri and Janakula, which are formulated on the name of legendary Janaka, father of Sitha, suggests that they have certainly connection with the Mithila region. But by the starting period of medieval period, vide spread migration of warrior tribes have took place and some of them have reached Delhi and its surroundings. The Surnames relating to the legendary Rama such as Ramineni, Ramshetti and the saint surname of gargula, gotras such as Kashyapa and Bharadwaja (the famous gotras in U.P),Dasharath,Vasista,Srivatsa,Mudgala,Pulastya,Ashriya,Kausika and Pashupala suggests that yellapus have certainly connection with the Utter Pradesh.

Hence, I propose that the yellapus are belongs to the Gujarath, and Rajasthan and  they migrated to U.P. and Bihar.They merged with the local people.Later,they started migrating to the South India from the neighboring areas of Delhi. It is supported by a surname, Jangeti, a name of a village near Meerut in U.P. It may reveal their relation with U.P and neighboring areas of Delhi. It is exactly matching with the place of living of Yellapus, which is near Delhi, before migrating to other places. We can also relate some of their migration from Europe and Russia basing on their Gotras and family names, which was quite natural in case of warrior tribes. But i confine myself to India only. Many Yellapu elders reveal in their oral stories that their ancestors are from the neighbouring areas of Delhi.

There are many hindhi words as surnames in yellapus,such as dadi,puppala(one who belongs to uncle,which is a mixed word of hindhi and telugu).It means they lived in hindhi region for long time.The surnames Chanda(a maharastra town on the borders of A.P),perkari and cherukuthota suggests that these people lived in viderbha region before migrating to A.P.Also,the presence of yellapus in central India and Maharastra/vidarba region suggests us that the migration took place through these regions in to the Andra Pradesh. The time of the migration may be after downfall of Rastrakutas and during the early kakatiyas.The reason for migration is for regaining the lost employment.

In Maharastra also we can notice the amalgamation of some people into the Yellapus.The families of Karnavattula may be the people lived in the city of Karnavathi. In fact when Yellapus migrated to Delhi from Rajasthan, Karnavathi was not established. Hence, the people may be later amalgamation is correct or otherwise, they would have went there and come back.Even today, there is presence of saini families in Nagpur, which is in the migratory route of Yellapus.

Under Kakatiyas

But, one sure fact is that, Yellapus were present in the kakatiya kingdom and got the lands for their loyal service. They might not conquer the kakatiya region. The family name of Bethi in yellapus made it clear that yellapus were either related to Betharaju, the early king of kakatiyas, or worked under his patronage.It clears that yellapus are present in Andhra Pradesh by the time of Betha Raju.It is also discussed in the caste that while other castes were opposing the preference given to velamas by the kakatiya prataparudra-2, yellapus served kakatiyas loyally and fought for the kingdom valiantly, even after the gates of the fort was opened. It has improved the friendship between yellapus and velamas and continued up to present days. It has also opened the opportunities for the yellapus in future.There is one surname Recherla also exists in Yellapus, who were the loyal associates of kakatiyas.The surname Jampala proves that these people were present at Jampanna vagu, may be for consolidating the power of kakatiyas.

Further,It is very much known to us that the earlier word of saini is Sahni.We can find many sahnis working faithfully under kakatiyas.As per the inscriptions, they have made donations to the temples.They played vital role in advicing the king and protecting the kingdom in war conditions.I feel that sahnis are become sainis any way and some of them are definitely of yellapu community.However, this surname is present in velamas and munnuru kapus also.This clearly reveals that yellapus were enjoying good positions during kakatiyas, as estimated earlier.

Worth disuccable point is that Where did velamas and Yellapus met for the first time? Velamas are belongs to Bihar and started migrating after downfall of Nandha Kingdom. Some Yellapus are belongs to Bihar and started migrating to South from Delhi and its surroundings. They have become prominent in palanadu area and at later stages joined the kakatiya kingdom. But, Yellapus entered into the A.P. through Maharastra and was part of kakatiyas dur ing early kings. Thus, they met in kakatiya kingdom only for first time.

During this period yellapus have also came in contact with Gavaras also.There are historical evidences of common surnames,such as dadi.
Another Point is that the kosnam families were worked as vassals of kakatiya kings. The ancestors of Sri.Kosnam Ramchender rao, F/O Kishan rao was a vassal of Kakatiyas. His kingdom was touching Karimnagar, Nizamabad, Adilabad and small parts of Warangal district. They ruled from the Mulangur forte. They have also constructed a temple by name Sundaragiri temple.The forte of polampally is belongs to the sisters of sri.Ramachender rao. Thus, this forte may be also belongs to his ancestors. Their vassal area extended to vainganga in Adilabad district.The extent of area is very large and it is far off to the capital of Kakatiyas. This fort is acted as strategic shield fort of kakatiyas, from the invading armies. Thus, he may the important vassal and gained the confidence in the kingdom of Kakatiyas.

One interesting story was revealed by Sri.Praveen, an advocate in the Hon'ble Highcourt.During the Prataparudra-2 the Delhi Sultans were trying to defeat the kakatiyas by one way or other.They started negotiating with the different sections of the Army.They contacted the yellapu nobles.These people were at the strategic locations. The question of the muslims was that what was the reward for the Yellapus for protecting the borders of kakatiya kingdom for 200 years.Some yellapu nobles was started thinking about the reality.They assured many lands.

This has created suspicion in the mind of Prataparudra.He tried to curb certain yellapu of them was King of Polasa(presently in Karimnagar).He was forced to retreat in to the forest and later to his Son- in-law at medaram, pagidigiddaraju, who is believed as koya warrior.But, he appraised me that he is belongs to yellapu community.It is pertinent to mention that pagidididderaju(one who wears the pagidi or turban, a north indian tribal tradition) is the right pronounciation .But later it would have corrupted to pagidigiddaraju.This clarifies the  close relation between koyas and yellapus.

The pagidi would have worn to protect the hair(koppu).There is presence of many koppula families in yellapu community. pagidididderaju may be ancestor of these families. Also Jampala families may be related to this family.

The rest of the story is very well known to every one in the form of sammakka sarakka story, the Jathara,which attracts the worlds second largest gathering.The courageous fighting was believed to be later inherited by the yellapu women, to protect their kith and kin ,during the absence of  male members.

to briefly narrate, sammakka is the wife of Pagidigiddaraju and sarakka is daughter.When he failed to pay the kappam during the famine, kakatiyas started war on this tribal kingdom.When the tribals were on the verge of defeat and all the kith and kin are wounded or died, sammakka started killing the kakatiya armies ferociously.But,she was shot treachorously from the back.Consequently, she was disappeared after retreating from battle ground.

I also remind that Koyalagudem and yellagiri is in close geographical contiguity at Rachakonda hills, revealing their close relation even after downfall  of kakatiya dynasty.

on the other hand the remaining yellapu nobles were loyal to prataparudra. But, the borders were neglected.The absence of warriors in the route of delhi to warangal created weakness.When the delhi sultans were launched their final attack on kakatiyas, there were not even five soldiers were present in kagaznagar area, according to one historian.Thus , delhi king has reached the kakatiya capital at an early, not allowing the prataparudra to make arrangements for war.Through the strategic negotiations with yellapu and other warriors, delhi has created the suspicion in the minds of kakatiyas, which made to lost the unconditional support from the warrior communities.

Though i have many doubts in the story told, but there are some substantial evidences to believe certain facts.

Soon after the downfall of kakatiyas, yellapus has to get the employment.

Under Rachakonda

After the kakatiya downfall, yellellapus has no way but to move to vijayanagara kingdom for employment and to satisfy their military zeal. The presence of yellapus in Karnataka,Tamilnadu and Rayalaseema supports the view that they have definitely migrated to vijayanagara kingdom.There are many surnames relating to these areas supports this view.It is also possible that before migrating to vijayanagara Kingdom atleast some of these people would have worked under the kings of Rachakonda velamas.After the fort city falls into the hands of Bahamani kingdom in the year 1433,they would have migrated to vijayanagara.Thus, some people would have directly joined the vijayanagara and some people joined at a later date.The surname of Rachakonda supports this view.As per the historical citations, there were en-masse migrations of nayakas of erstwhile kakatiyas to vijayanagara kingdom after the downfall of musunuri kapayanayaka in 1370.

I have been watching a village name yallagiri ,between pochampally   X road and chautuppal in nalgonda district. The hills of the Rachakonda starts at that point.I have been thinking whether it has  any relation with the caste of yellapu.The name of vellapu caste has changed to yellapu only after leaving the Warangal.Again it is vellapu in tamilnadu.Yellapus have moved from Rayalaseema to North coastal area.Then from there they moved to tamilnadu.Hence, there is some confusion,when this has altered.Otherewise ,we have to understand that it has been interchanging to both words.

However, yallagiri means the hill in the front.In the instant case the first hill is generally termed as adigiri ,or something else, but shall not be yallgiri.After the down fall of Warangal some yellapu people worked at Rachakonda.To protect from the onslaught of Golkonda, the soldiers might be kept at this place by king of Rachakonda. out of these soldiers, yellapus may be large in number and  village would have got name on these people. Also, if my assumption is correct, the name of vellapu has started altering from the Rachakonda.This is also clarifies that this is also a village on the name of Yellapus.

I have also verified the nearby villages of Yellagiri, a village 8 km away from the chautuppal in Nalgonda district. They are Koyyalagudem, Borralagudem, khaitapur,Malkapur. On examination of the meanings of the  villages some interesting facts would come out.Koyyalagudem may be corrupt form of Koyalagudem, which indicates the habitation of Koya warriors.Similarly, Borralagudem may be the corrupt form of Bohralagudem, which indicates the habitation of Bohra warriors, who are natives of Gujarath. The malkapur indicates the presence of malka families in large number, who are again members of Yellapu families.This has analogous with the Avaraikulam,Vellakulam and Chettikulam villages in tirunalvelvi district in Tamilanadu.While one village is named after the caste and one or more villages are named after the reveals the stationing of one family in one village for special purpose.

           I have also observed one village name Gujja, which may be a corrupt form of Gujjar, a caste and tribe name famous in Rajasthan. It may be named so because of influence of these families during the Rachakonda times. Also upkeeping of their tribe name even after their stay at Warangal under kakatiyas.Many yellapus have good relations with Gujjers.Thus,the gujjers may be also related to the Yellapus.It indicates the close relation between these families. In the recent past I have observed many Gujjer families, who are playing vital role in Khammam town.
           Another fact is indicated here is the warrior communities are stationed at these villages to protect the kingdom. These villages might have established in different periods as the Bohras might have inducted into army during Muslim period. The Yellapus and their Malka family certainly worked under the Rachakonda dynasty.The koya warriors may be also present during the Rachakonda dynasty. But,the research has to be conducted in depth on the role of Yellapu families in Rachakonda dynasty.It also proves the presence of Yellapu families working at nodal points such as Mulangur, Rachakonda initial hill point, elagandula,etc.

           Finally, it clarifies the presence of Yellapu warriors in Rachakonda dynasty. The surname, villages names attest their presence.

Under Vijayanagara
consequently, time has passed, mantle has passed into the hands of krishnadeva raya. Initially, his army received setbacks in the battle against the prataparudra gajapati of kalinga.Being angry, krishnadeva has personally led a war against the kalinga and defeated them. In this war krishnadeva has summoned the assistance of his most loyal soldiers, in which the yellapus were present. Later, gajapati made a peace pact by offering the hand of his daughter Annapurna to krishnadeva. But the army was continued at kalinga. Some of the surnames such as katakam, naradasu, madasu are certainly the kalinga names amongst the yellapus. The easily mingling nature of the yellapus made them telagas (kapu), which is the caste of Krishnadeva. That means in true terms they have once again lost their caste.

The yellapus were present in the Rayalaseema and Karnataka. The surnames of vellapu, yellapu and yellapi in ananthapur district and Kannada areas suggest that they have converted in to some other caste holding the identity of yellapus. It is doubtful whether these people can recognize themselves as yellapus, which is a separate caste. Similarly, the odisha has presence of yellapus, who did not like to return to the Bobbili Kingdom for employment like other yellapus. But they may be recognizing themselves as Kapus. Krishnadeva’s kingdom has reached the southern most points of madhura, tanjore,etc.There is presence of Yellapus in the form of Kapus,Nadars, vellappan and vellappu, who are enviously called as kapunayallu ,telaganiyalu,Telagani by the tamilians, for others hegemony and richness in their own region.The surnames of Chetti,Kotte,Onna ,Perisingala,Chennala are Tamil words.It is known that many soldiers and nayakas were sent along with vishwanatha naika to tamilnadu.Some of these people would have come back and retained their tamil names.

On my recent trip (January, 2012) to tirunalvelvi district in tamilnadu i found the villages of Avaraikulam, Chettikulam, Vellakulam, and Rayapalayam. These villages are presently dominantly populated with Nadar families (kapu Naidus).Out of this Avarai is one of the famous surnames of Yellapus.The village has got that name due to the presence of those family
 members in large number.The vellakulam village has got its name from Vellapu Kulam , which is later shrinked to Vellakulam over a period of time.It is denoting the larger presence of Vellapu families in that village.Similarly, the Chetti surname is also a famous surname in Yellapus.The presence of more number of Chetti families would have brought that name to that village.Rayapalayam is a village name got due to the presence of Raya or his relatives, who migrated to this village. 

Also there is presence many vellapalayam villages near madurai, denoting the presence of  
Vellapu families.Interestingly, at many of these places there is presence of Gavaras.It indicates that these people migrated together to the Tamilnadu, during the period of Vijayanagara.

The details of the villages are as follows:
The similar village names of vellapalayam is existing in Erode, Nagapattinam, Madurai districts.This may be also due to the influence of the caste in those days of vijayanagara kingdom in Tamilnadu.I have already mentioned the village name of Vellakulam on the name of this caste, existing in Tirunalvelvi district.

 Vellapalayam is a small village in Sembanar Koil Taluk in Nagapattinam District in Tamil Nadu State. Sembanar Koil, Mayiladuthurai, Sirkazhi, Nadungadu, are the near by Towns to Vellapalayam . Vellapalayam is reachable by Anandtandavpur RailWay Station , Vithisvarankol RailWay Station , Nidur RailWay Station , Mayiladuturai J RailWay Station , . Its main Village Panchayat is Mudikandanallur Panchayat .

 The address and accessibility of the villages are as follows: Address Post Office Vellapalayam B.O (Branch Post Office), ERODE , Dist. : ERODE , State: TAMIL NADU , PIN - 638315 Postal Divison ERODE Office Description Branch Post Office TALUK ERODE Postal Circle TAMILNADU District ERODE PIN Code 638315 OFFICE Vellapalayam B.O Postal Region COIMBATORE State TAMIL NADU

 Pariyur Vellapalayam is located in Madurai district that comes under Tamil Nadu, India. Pariyur Vellapalayam is a popular place of Madurai district. The clear evidence of village names on the surnames, which I have already mentioned is Avaraikulam, Chettikulam.As per the Gavara website, the villages on the name of dadi surname also exists in Tamilnadu and Karnataka.
  Rapole Ramkumar Bharadwaj has made greatest contribution for the yellapu community than what his elder rapole family members contributed is Identiying a plant name on yellapu community as follows: Vellapula” plant is a shrub. Edible fruit & medicinal plant using by tribal’s of Anamalai hills, western Ghats, Coimbatore district, Tamil Nadu. Scientific name: Euphorbiaceae Securinega virosa (Roxb. ex Willd.).Its collecting season is summer.

              Later I have searched on the similar lines and found two more plants on our family name.
 1.Plant-Altternanthera Tenella(L) colla

Local name-Vellaponnankanni
Collecting season-Rainy  
Meaning of this plant is the precious plant for maidens found by vellapu community.It has proved that anti viral and anti microbial properties.Such plant is definitely very much useful to fight against many unknown viral and microbial born ailments.It is not out of place to mention that many tribals die due to such ailments.
2.Plant-Cleome monophylla L

Family- Capparidaceae
 Local name-Vellai
Collecting season-Rainy
3.Plant-Rugosa Lam

 Local name-kottai
Collecting season-Rainy
Kottai or kotte is a famous surname in yellapu community. It again proves that plant is existing on the surname also, as is in the case of villages existing both on family names and caste names.

 The following things can be deducted from the above plant names on the Yellapu community as follows:
1.Yellapus were very frequently using these plants or propogated the use of them among the tribal locals during their stay in that area.
2.Once again it proved that Yellapus were there in Tamilnadu area. It proves that yellapu ancestors were experts in using the herbs and ayurvedic scientists. It has percolated to the the generation of my Grand father also.later it was neglected.

3. It also reveals their tribal relations even in the new areas where migrated newly in the areas like Tamilnadu.In this connection it is pertinent to mention that yellapus had close relations with tribals like koyas, lambadas,etc.

4. There are Ayurvedic plant names on villages, cities, hills,etc.Aurvedic pplant on the name of a community is seen for the first time in my experience. 

5.There are villages, hills,etc are existing on the caste name of yellapus or family names,but it revealed a plant names on community. 

6.An interesting person can identify many new things and contribute to the history of community.

Thus, It reveals that Vellapus were migrated to those places during the Vijayanagara and only some families came back.One other significance is that Krisnadevaraya had sent his loyal soldiers to tamilnadu along with Vishwanatha naika to fight against his rebelled father against kingdom.Hence,it again proves the loyalty of Yellapu community to their rulers.
The surnames of Gadapa and Adapa are the early forms of the present kadapah.This also support the presence of Yellapus in the Rayalaseema region.

Nirmal area
meanwhile, some yellapus were present at Warangal even after the downfall of kakatiyas. Some of them have migrated to nimma kingdom established at Nirmal in adilabad district. But, most unfortunately, the families of Lakkakula, cheruku,Dade,Adapa,Gandhe,Ganta, Jampala, Jangeti, Kandula, Konda, Koppula, Kotte, katakam, padala, pedda,penchala, soini, shetty, sunkiti, thota, and vodnala ,who merged with munnurukapus and living from sargamma temple to Venkatadripet Street and bangal pet areas do not remember that they are of warrior community. But their structure clearly reveals the fact that they are of warrior community. There is on locality called Naiduwada, which is lived by naidis(corrupt form of Naidu).This means they are high born people.I know one Naidi Ramesh, a councillor of that ward previously.In true terms he should be known as Ramesh Naidu, if he remembers his ancestry.Most of them have forgotten that they have migrated with nimma kings. The king Nimmanaidu may be also of the Kapu or yellapu origin, though he is stated as velama by some people.

Nuzivid area

it is already discussed that Yellapus migrated from Warangal to vijayanagara kingdom and Nirmal areas. Some older people stayed at Warangal only. They have migrated to Khammam, Nalgonda and Krishna Districts. It is discussed in the caste that the king of the Nuzivid is also of Yellapu origin. Certain people in the Deshaipet area of Warangal town migrated to Krishna district and came back and established one colony.It is also learnt from Sri.Kandula Thirumal Rao that People of that area are still maintaining the relations with Nalgonda district also.They are continuing the suffix of Rayudu. They are also enjoying the political power.

Bobbili &Orissa and North coast

On the other hand in the north coastal area, they are employed by the bobboili kingdom under the patronage of velamas. In this period, yellapus had got many setbacks. They lost their respect, as some of the yellapus have become poor and started the menial works under the velamas. Even till today, some velamas treat the yellapus with same attitude. This view is supported by the fact that yellapus in the north coastal area, up of vizag, are still living the nomadic conditions.These people are not accepted by the educated yellapus of telangana area, as they are poor and nomadic. But their body structure is like warriors. Even the women are not inferior to men. The surnames of naradasu and madasu also reveal that they are transformed as servants of king even during kalinga period.After the great war of bobbili, the velamas lost their kingdom.
Mr.Karunakar Rao has also provided superb links, which includes the book written by micheal katten on Making Caste in Nineteenth-Century India: A History of Telling the Bobbili Katha &Velama Identity. I could produce the following points immediately as follows and comment here under:
There is special mention of Beri Komati sthreelu. In one part of the fort lived the Beri komatis.At the on set of the siege the men of this jati were out gathereing their merchandise, while the women were forced in to action. With the refrain “beri Vari Strilu”(Women of Beri People) author tells of their heroism:
The Beri women tied their hair in knots (tufts), and swung them behind their heads. They knotted the loose ends of their saris. Then they tied up stones, and the pestles available. And they proceeded to throw the entire collection of rocks on top of the 12,000 Frenchmen and the army gathered nearby. Then they struck the white men where they lay. They hit the heads of 200 soldiers. From the tops of elephants observes gathered and watched in sheer amazement.
It also revealed that there are telagas and velamas exist in the fort. The have killed their children and women to show the solidarity to king in the time of distress.
Out of the two statements we can deduce one certain fact that Beri komatis has corrupted to Bairu shettis in Telangana area.These people later merged into telagas and Yellapus, duly migrating to Telangana area.The family name of Bairushetty exists in Yellapus in Vemulawada in Karimnagar district. It is also existing in Warangal in Telagas.It is not easy to distinguish telagas and Yellapus in Warangal district.There is existence of Ranabheri (Anabheri) families and Bherishetti (Bhairushetty) families among Yellapus. Former are end users and latter are suppliers.Interestingly, there are only two families of Bairushetty exists now. This low number confirms the onslaught of these families during Bobbili war, amalgamation in other caste and forming in to some separate caste.
As told by the Yellapu elders that women use to wage the war equally with men. The above incident of fighting by women against the well disciplined army reveals the fierceness of women among the Yellapus/telagas. I remember that the old age persons, who are descendent of migrants along with my forefathers use to tell that Yellapus are also called telagas in Nalgonda district.
Thus, yellapus were very much part of Bobbili war. Their women also participated in the war, when other women and children are killed. Some children are got escaped and reached to Nalgonda district finally via albaka, Warangal district and thorrur.It also supports the reason of very less number of families among the Yellapus.

After the war of Bobbili,yellapus have settled at else where in the vijayanagaram , srikakulam and vishakapatnam districts. As per the information given by madhurima vodnala, yellapus are still existing in the palakonda village.

.  There is one yellapuvanipalem village near vishakapatnam from one sri.Yellapu Mukunda Ramarao, an elder person of Gavara Community and who has been doing research had sent an appreciation on my research and provided the valuable information .As per him, Yellapus lived there long back and name of the village is on that caste dominance. I have also tried to contact the villagers through the face book.This has stimulated thought in my mind that there may be the other villages in the near by places.So far I have found other 3 villages, the details of the villages are as follows:

Akkireddypalem is a Locality in Visakhapatnam City. Sourounded By Nathayyapalem , Mindi Village , BHPV Township , Gajuwaka , Tungalam , Localities . Simhachalam Rail way station is Reachable to Akkireddypalem. Near By Airport is Vishakhapatnam Airport.

Bongaram is a Village in Peda Bayalu Mandal in Visakhapatanam District in Andhra Pradesh State . Bongaram is located 92.6 km distance from its District Main City Visakhapatanam . It is located 440 km distance from its State Main City Hyderabad .

Vellapalem is a small village in Peda Bayalu Mandal in Visakhapatanam District in Andhra Pradesh State. Peda Bayalu, Hukumpeta, Munchingi Puttu, Paderu, are the near by Towns to Vellapalem . Vellapalem is reachable by Padua RailWay Station , Darliput RailWay Station , Gorapur RailWay Station , Bheja RailWay Station , . Its main Village Panchayat is Vellapalem Panchayat .

The other village name that retained by the yellapu family retained is Vurugonda in Vishakapatnam district.The details of village are as follows:

Vurugonda is a small village in Paderu Mandal in Visakhapatanam District in Andhra Pradesh State. Paderu, Hukumpeta, G.Madugula, Peda Bayalu, are the near by Towns to Vurugonda . Vurugonda is reachable by Gorapur RailWay Station , Arakku RailWay Station , Padua RailWay Station , Darliput RailWay Station , . Its main Village Panchayat is Vurugonda Panchayat.

From the above information we can logically deduct that some Yellapu families stayed in the interior areas of Vishakaptnam district, that to in an agency area to the reasons existing at that time, after the Bobbili war.It is to understand in such a way that :

People migrated during the war have stayed in Khammam, Warangal and Nalgonda districts.

People migrated to Vijayanagaram and Srikakulam districts and agriculture as profession (mostly) have comparatively good living along with Velamas.

The people migrated to vishakapatnam district and who was following the Business during the Bobbilili war time is merged with Gavaras.

Some people migrated to Telangana area along with Velamas and living mostly in North Telangana after living in the areas of Vishakapatnam and other areas for some time .

The other people have stayed in the interior areas and continued to be in nomadic condition.

It also gives the insight of understanding the fact that some of the community people though reject to accept that Yellapi is not the Yellapu is proved to be wrong beyond any doubt, as the most of the inhabited areas are matching.Instead of rejecting the fact blindly, they should strive for the development of those people in poverty.

Nalgonda district

subsequently, yellapus have migrated to the Nalgonda district and stayed at the places of bhuvanagiri, parpelly, sunkishala, and Mothkur.There are evidences of staying of this people at thimmapur, koodali,phanigiri,etc, The surname of bonagiri reveals two things. One, yellapus stayed at these places. Second, these people have migrated to the karimnagar district during the period influenced by the English, as the pronunciation of Bhuvanagiri has changed to Bhonagiri or Bhongir during that period only. The formula of migrate and forget the stayed people has effectively implemented here also. But, this did not happen in case of velamas. The migration to the karimnagar district is taken from the wider horizons of Bhongir division and suryapet division, in contrary to the earlier expectations of bhongir town alone.
The estimated time of migration of kalavala families to Mothkur took place between 1840-50.The war of Bobbili took place in 1757.Hence, between these hundred years they may be at Warangal and khammam districts. In this regard, it is to reiterate that Yellapu families have not migrated from one place to one place at once, as it is told by elders. The migration from Bobbili is also not an exemption.It is clear that some people left Bobbili during the war and some after the war.
The Benevolent Grand father of Mr.Rao, Sri.Narahari Rao has got migrated 20 families to Mothkur for living together, namely Devineni, Polineni, Gandham, Konatham, Gaddam, Duscherla, Adapa, etc.His grand father was called as Rayudu by the villagers with respect.

Sri.kamatam papaiah, maternal Grand father of Mr.rao was a Hazari in the Bhonagiri fort. It clarifies that many Yellapus and Telagas in the Warangal and Nalgonda district have got the status of Hazari or more. Hazari organization is based on the decimal system. In this one leader of soldier leads the military in the multiples of 10 basing on the horses they maintain and assignment of land given to them.However, many Hazaris have merged with telagas in Nalgonda district. There is presence of them in the surrounding villages of Suryapet.
Kaluvala families resided in mothkur in Nalgonda district. These people migrated from Bobbili to Albaka in Khammam district near Kothagudem on the bank of River Godavari. From there, they migrated to Jaffargadh in Warangal district and later to mothkur via thorrur. Earlier, it was thought that the migration took place to Nalgonda district from Bobbili. Now, it is clarified that migration took place to Nalgonda district via khammam and Warangal district. These families have relatives in Jaffargadh a famous fort village. Jaffargadh is 12 km. away from Vardhannapet, on the way to Thorrur from Warangal. Most of these people might have stayed in Jaffargarh before migrating to Mothkur.

On the other hand the after war migration route is not clear. But, one sure fact is that they migrated along with velamas, as told by sri.Kishan Rao, a famous velama leader.
The reason for the migration is that when it was estimated that Bobbili is on loosing end women and children was killed by their family members. About 100 children of kalvala families and their relatives were secretly got escaped to albaka through different routes to their maternal uncles house. It reveals that those people have maintained relations from that distance place. The matrimonial relations were also established from that distant place.
Here these families had continued the tradition of Guru. The Guru of these families was a kannadiga. He followed the vaishnavite tradition. He uses to stay for one week when he arrives in the village. He uses to do the Yagnam for the welfare of the people. He uses to put the sauthrinam, a typical mark put with the burning iron rod.
Guru had agraharams allocated by the kings. Out of which Guru had given 600 Acres to the Kalvala Narahari Rao, Grand father of Sri.Karunakar Rao, for the benevolent and serving nature. Astonishingly, he asked to give the land to the poor also. Guru replied that I will give them land but not as you expected for them. Finally, the poor also got the lands. What an un-imaginable quantity of kindness for poor.

Another interesting fact is that Uncles of Mr.Rao is also using the Rayudu as suffix to the name. Actually, it is being used for the vassals of Kakatiyas.

During my enquiry some of the Telagas in Nalgonda district, who again claim themselves as MunnuruKapus for sake of reservation certificate, even they are vatandars. The family names of Bonagiri, , Kandula, salwadi,Thota, Gandham,Parepally,Mudarapu, Ramishetty, Lakkakula, Mekala, Puppala,Sairi, kotte, Jangeti, Thoom, Palle, puram,etc. amongst the telagas (munnuru kapus) suggests that they are non other than people of yellapus. Here in Nalgonda district the telagas and munnuru kapu has no difference and it is one and same. Only a few people use the suffix of Naidu along with their name amongst the telagas. Unless otherwise these people have the advantage, these people do not reveal that they are telagas.
Another, Important feature that observed among the telagas(kapus) in Nalgonda district is that the surnames of them are similar to that of the Nirmal Kapus, who are believed to have been migrated along with Nimmanaidu from warangal. Hence, the origin of kapus of Nirmal , Nalgonda district and of yellapus are same.All the three have connections with the kakatiyas of Warangal.For curiosity, i have examined the surnames of telagas of Nalgonda town,which do not match with this. Some family names are corrupted.For instance I mention some surnames matched amongst the kapus of nirmal and Nalgonda district as follows:
Marugonda, Kummari , Anumula, Adumula, Bonagiri, Menga, Poddelli, Koona, Gojja, Aindla, Penta, Munigela, Mallepoola, Arikari, Kotte, Jangiti,Manoori, Thoom, Pathike, Panthike, Akula, Naidi, Sriramraju, Dyavarshetti, Ramolu, Japa, Ravula, Vantala, Palle, Chirutha, Cheruku, Munigela, Kunta, Basetti, Nandedapu,Pogula, Manglarapu, Manda, etc.
Interestingly, the surnames of Sangu, Bahroju, Bahunuthula, Chenchi are of Gurjara- Pratihara origin, who migrated from Rajasthan and part of Telagas of suryapet.

Karimnagar district
Subsequently, yellapus were migrated to the karimnagar district and in different places such as buggaram, bommakal , oudyarm, kalvakota, ootpally, nagunoor, narayanpet,Mormoor,Ibrahimpatnam, Madapur, Kondapur,Bandala lingapur, Dharmaram, Manakondur, Polampally, Gullakota, Jainapeta, Rekonda, Chengerla, Godhur, Ilapur,Kodimyala, Paidipally, Velchala,Bhavpet, Huzurabad, duddenapally,Basheerabad,Lakkora,Venkatapuram,Venkatraopet, Sircilla, Poshettypalle,Thadicherla,Simhampeta(medak). I learned during the visit that people of Venkatapuram are migrated from oudhyaram.Only 3 or 4 families are living there.One sri.Maruthi Rao told me that all the Bonthala families have left that village.I was curious to visit this village as mother of my Paternal Grandmother is native of that village.
As seen from the geographical conditions, the inhabited villages of Yellapus are in the surroundings of elagandula fort.Some Yellapus were working as soldiers in the elagandula fort. The Tula families were working as officers responsible for getting weighing of the grain of the king.
I presume that the Bonagiri families have migrated later than other people to karimnagar, as these people are called on the name of migrating town and rest of the others are up keeping the older surnames. This has to be ascertained from the elders.

One interesting point in the migration of Yellapus from Nalgonda to karimnagar district is that these people migrated from different revenue divisions, that are bhongir and suryapet.The villages/others indicated in the surnames are Bonagiri, Rapole, paruvelli, sunki. To explain Bonagiri is a town.Rapole is a corrupt form of Rayaprolu, a temple name in suryapet.parupalli is a village name in rajapet mandal in Bhongir division,6 K.m.away from Mandal Head Quarter.Sunki and sunkara are famous surnames in over all nalgonda district.Thus, it is beyond any doubt that Yellapus migrated to karimnagar district from different divisions of Nalgonda district.The great man behind this migration is not traced by me.But it is a miraculous act to bind the people of different places and provide them safety during the migration and later.Another superb facet is that other caste people also migrated with this people. Some other caste people of nalgonda are still living in khanapur with Yellapus.
One interesting fact happened at karimnagar district was that yellapus lost their employment and some of them caused unrest. Vexed by the activities of yellapus and following unrest, Nizam of Hyderabad was clever enough to gift lands and made them landlords.All the people were not become land lords in this process.The warrior nature has become advantage in granting the lands to control other people.Some people have purchased the lands with their inherited wealth.Thus,the Yellapus has regained the prestige lost in odisha and north coastal areas.Recently, i came to know that the robbed amount was distributed to poor people, on the lines of Robinhood .Even women was also part of robbing operations, as told by Dr.V.S.Rao.It reveals that unrest is not in the depression for loosing the employment but for sake of higher achievements.

Some people had their own small forts at Mulangur, Gullakota, polampally, Gillakota, Lakkora, and Basheerabad.out of this Mulangur outnumbers all the forts in size of the fort and area of rule. It is on the strategic raod leading from elagandula to Warangal.
The migrations to the peddapally area is in diffent way.One women of Rapole families has brought her four brothers along with her from else where in Rayalaseema on Horses. They carried all the gold with them. She has bought 100 acres of land for each brother in different villages namely vemnur, mormoor,padakanti and madaka all near peddapally and Ramagundam.It was also told that then carried gold was existing till recent times.The family tree of rapole families is existing.Some documents are available with the elder brother. She has mobilized the all other caste people by providing employment and matrimonial relations.What a wonderful technique of amalgamation, followed from ancient days of kings.Hence, some people inherited the lands, some have bought and only a few was gifted by nizam. These people on tour use to prefer to take meals in the families of vyshyas and Brahmins but not in the families of reddis or velamas.
Modern Karimnagar history-Role of Yellapus

Yellapus worked at Bandala lingapur samsthan.Originally it is belongs to Raja Shivaraj Bahadur a wazir at Nizam. Banda lingapuram and Peddapalli in Karimnagar district were his Samsthans or Jagirs. He had two sons namely Dharm Karan and Indra Karan. The father and the sons lived in Hyderabad and gave their Jagirs on lease to the Velamas. This continued for generations together. Here Yellapu families seved the Jagirdar faithfully.

In fact, a search was made by a committee /team headed by a Brahmin to identify the efficient successor, so as to adopt him.This team moved to many places. Finally, A Velama boy named Lingala Ananta Kishan Rao, brought from Nizamabad area, was the adopted son and he was the last ruler of Banda Lingapuram Samsthan lying Adjacent to Metpalli Jagir.
Jamedar Venkanna belonging to Yellapi caste was his Diwan. A Velama named Peggerla Rajanna belonging to Raikal was in his service. According to local information Raja Anant Kishan Rao was the first landlord to provide amenities to his people. He built a water tank in his Samsthan village Banda Lingapuram and supplied water through tap system. Even today the same water tank is supplying water in the village. He arranged a generator and electrified his village.Indeed the most wonderful and rare attempt made by Raja Ananta Kishan Rao to provide electricity and water through taps in his village uring the first half of the twentieth century, deserves a high degree of appreciation and admiration.

An anecdote popular in this region reveals that there was a tussle between the Dora of Banda Lingapuram Samsthan and the adjacent Jagirdar of Metpalli over the lands lying at the outskirts of Vellula village. It is said that there were even exchanges of fire some times between both the parties. They filed a case in the High court, which gave judgement in favour of Metpalli Jagirdar. When the Mohatmeem or the Superintendent of Police of Metpalli Jagir went to Vellulla to take over the lands, about hundred sepoys of Samsthan under the command of Jamedar Venkanna raised their guns. The Jagir police is stated to have returned to Metpalli without any action. Such was the power exhibited by Banda Lingapuram Samsthan in those days. It is a tragedy that the Raja of Samsthan faced an untimely death. The samsthan had two more Gadis under its control, one at Ailapuram near Koratla and the other at Ravikanti or Raikal. Raja Anant Kishan Rao is blessed with two sons. Raja Gajasimha Rao and Raja Narasimha Rao, who settled in Hyderabad.

It was told by the yellapu elders that Raja was under many addictions and lost his health, leading to loss of life. During this period many yellapu families were involved in the administration and served samsthan faithfully. I also found that still many yellapu families were living there.

The poet Jaishetty Rajaiah (1842-1921) of Jagtial wrote in his verses that there were 221 villages besides a few Madirasin the old Jagtial Taluk 159, which included the areas of Metpalliand Koratla also in A.D. 1903. The same poet stated in 1903 that the Gandevaru belonging to Yellapi caste had four Jagirs namely Chiluvakoduru, Israjpalle, Vengalapuram and Gullakota in old Jagtial taluk and two more Jagirs Paidipalli and Munjampalli in other taluks of this district. Vengalapur Dharma Rao belonging to Gande family is now residing at Jagtial.These Gadis, which were once the centres of village administration with great pomp and show, now remain in ruins having lost their glory and grandeur.

The Gadis of Banda Lingapuram, Ailapuram, Raikal, Sirikonda, Itikyal, Rudrangi, Chalgal, Bheemaram, Rajaram, Govindaram, Nerella, Buggaram, Koratla, Vemulavada, Sircilla, Racherla Boppapuram, Nimmapalli, Peddapalli, Tadicherla, Gajasingavaram, Lingannapeta, Kamalapur, Uppal, Guduru, Ghanpur, Sarvaipeta, Vangara, Manakonduru, Kodmial, Gorregundam and several other places, which are now in ruins, remind the aristrocratic and oppressive rule of the then landlords during the first half of the twentieth century.

Out of the above Gadis, either ruling or living by the yellapus have been taken place in the following: Banda Lingapuram, Ailapuram, Buggaram, Koratla, Vemulavada, Sircilla, Peddapalli, Tadicherla, , Manakonduru, Kodmial.The other places of Gadis includes kalvakota, ,Mormoor,, Polampally, Gullakota, Chengerla, duddenapally,Basheerabad,Lakkora,Venkatapuram,etc.
The living in and around gadis or forts like elagandula and having them and ruling as de-facto rulers in absence of the land lords had created a myth of Ruling class among many yellapus. All the yellapus were not among the elite class. There have been disparities since ages. To be frank, in case of most developed velamas and reddys, there have been disparities.

Anabheri Prabhakar Rao-his role in anti-nizam struggle

In true terms, the history of the Yellapus is incomprehensive, without writing about Sri.Anabheri Prabhakar Rao.The citation from the Modern Karimnagar history is as follows:
Another important son of this soil Anabheri Prabhakar Rao, who fought against the Nizam and Razakars was born to the couple Venkateshwar Rao and Radhabai on 15th August 1910 in a Deshmukh family of Yellapi caste at Polampally village in Thimmapur Mandal near Karimnagar. While studying in Nizam College, he was inspired by the ideals of Gandhiji and entered the Anti-Nizam Movement as a student. On the call given by Baddam Yella Reddy in september 1947 many people joined the struggle. A Dalam or squad was formed under the leadership of Anabheri Prabhakar Rao. The members of the squads burnt the Records of Patels and Patwaris in about forty villages in January 1948. In a fight against the Police and Razakars, there was fearful exchange of fire on 14th March 1948 between the police and the communist squad in the hills and hillocks of Muhammadapur near Husnabad in Karimnagar district. Dr.Sarojini Regani recorded that about 8 members including Anabheri Prabhakar Rao and Singireddy Bhoopathi Reddy died fighting heroically against the reserved police of the Nizam161. But Poreddy Ram Reddy, who participated in the struggle at Muhammadapur as a young man of twenty is alive and lives at Somarampeta village in Ellanthakunta Mandal of Sircilla area. He states that about fifteen people died fighting heroically against the Nizam forces.They were Anabheri Prabhakar Rao from Polampalli, Singireddy Bhoopathi Reddy from Taduru, Musku Chokka Reddy and Yeleti Malla Reddy from Ogulapur, Aireddy Bhoom Reddy from Somarampeta, Narayana from Begumpeta, B.Damodar Reddy from Nallagonda, Illendula Papaiah from Galipalli, Poli Chandra Reddy and Kummari Yellaiah from Somarampeta, Nallagonda Rajaram and Sikkudu Sailu from Regadi Maddikunta and Rondla Madhava Reddy from Repaka etc. Besides these martyrs, many others sustained bullet injuries. It is strange that the name of Poreddy Ram Reddy of Somarampet, who is alive, is included in the list of the dead instead of Poli Chandra Reddy of the same village, who was shot dead and whose name was not found in the list of the dead. All the names of these comrades, who died fighting can be noticed on the stupa erected in their memory near the hills of Muhammadapur 162. The valiant commander of
the Dalam Anabheri Prabhakar Rao and his comrades, who lost their lives, remain immortal in the history of Karimnagar district. Amrutlal Shukla was first a teacher at Sircilla.

Anti-Nizam struggle

Ganapati Rao of Manthani, J.R.Gopal Rao of Sircilla, Juvvadi Chokka Rao of Irukulla, Juvvadi Ramapathi Rao and Juvvadi Madusudhan Rao of Karimnagar, K.Sanjeeva Rao of Velgonda, Dasari Raghavulu of Jagtial, Lingala Satyanarayana Rao of Velagaturu, Gande Jagan Madhava Rao of Chilvakoduru, Vakil Mukundlal Mishra of Karimnagar and Boinapally Venkata Rama Rao of Thotapalli and many others known and unknown are said to have participated in the anti Nizam Struggle. Juvvadi Ramapathi Rao and Juvvadi Chokka Rao were elected to the Parliament from Karimnagar in later times. Boinapally Venkatarama Rao participated in the Sarvodaya, Bhoodan and Grandhalaya movements. He opposed the procurement of paddy from peasants, under the compulsory levy system. He arranged a meeting at Bejjenki which was addressed by Burgula Rama Krishna Rao and T.Haigreeva Chary. He is Known as ‘Thotapalli Gandhi and he is awarded recently the honorary Doctorate Degree by the Kakatiya University.

Adilabad district

consequently, a set of people, who are dependent on the hunting are migrated to Adilabad district following the ruining of the forest in the karimnagar district to Khanapur and its surroundings. As per the statement of the elders, the migration was not done at once. It had taken more than 10 years. The confidence to live in this place was brought by the family members of Bonagiri venkanna, a great hunter, who can shoot 1 paise coin from 50 yards distance. He was equally able to convince other castes to be along with them in migration. He provided the required food at low cost or no cost.when there is need, these families have provided amounts at low interest or no interest. The families of Kuthuru, edla, bathula and Gandla are actually following the yellapus from Nalgonda district.Later on other families of ganta, Basa, chintapandu, lakkakula, elumula followed. Ganta family migrated from Ibrahimpatnam. Kudala family joined in sattenpally at very later date from Jainapet.The gargula, shetty migration to rajura shall be ascertained. The arrival of Balasankula is not exactly known.
Velmula, chintapandu and puppala families have been living in surjapur in main town and palle. Some of them have migrated to Khanapur for the purpose of education.

Some people have been living at Bhavapur, dharmojipet, Revojipet, Bellala. Veeramalla people are dominant at Revojipet and Dharmojipet.However, the number of people living at Dhamrmojipet is dwindled with migrations to other places.
On the other hand the migrations to mancherial were also continued for employment. There are large number of people existing in naspur, Ramakrishnapur, rechini, jannaram, luxetipet and Mancherial.
It is told by elders that saini families had been living in adilabad since many years and the migration to gimma and karimnagar is a recent happening. In the recent past there is countable number of migration to the Adilabad town from the yellapu community for various reasons including the employment and settling there.

In the recent past there is exodus from karimnagar to alval in Hyderabad.The geographical advantage of easy access of vehicles to karimnagar has made it happen.They also spread to many other places of Hyderabad.However, the size of the population migrated to Hyderabad is quite low.

Foreign Countries
There are countable number of yellapus migrated to foreign countries includes U.S.A., U.K., Australia, Singapur, etc. Most of the people preferred the U.S.A. only. In this karimnagar district stood in front than any other district. The migration in karimnagar was led by Sri. Lakkakula Bhasker Rao. Later many people followed.The relatives of Thula families have been living in many numbers in foreign countries. In Adilabad district the chintapandu families are the front runners in number to reach the foreign countries. They are most enterprenuer cultured families with much fore sight in the district.

Interestingly, the migrations from the Nalgonda distict was very much long ago of more than 20 years. It is led by kaluvala family. They have been supporting many people to reach there and providing sensitive support after reaching

History of B.C. certificate

Eligibility: I feel that Yellapus have certain following eligibilities to access the B.C. Certificate (It is not needed at this time, but it is as a matter of information to young people);
• These people are of tribal origin and later become soldiers. Most of their occupation continued to be hunting till recent times.
• They also worked as personal servants of the kings in the kalinga area and at later stage their positions worsened further. In distress some of them even took up robberies.
• Poverty prevails even in recent times.
• Other kshatriyas communities are included in the B.C. list.
• These people are not the sole rulers’ except at few places.


In true terms there was clear issuing of the B.C. Certificates in Adilabad district. The conflict is only in Karimnagar district. I remember that I have taken caste certificate in my childhood itself. All of a sudden issuing of certificates was stopped, due to agitation by other caste people in karimnagar district.
But, some people have relentlessly tried to get back the B.C. Certificate. Sri.Sadanad Rao, Bheemsen Rao, and others tried their level best. They roamed around the offices, lawyers to plead for the rival of certificate. At last only after sri.Gaddenna, M.L.A. Mudhole has become the Minister of B.C. Welfare, the process of verification of validity of including the Yellapus in to the B.C. List has started. I can proudly say that my father Sri. Bonagiri Ganga Ram , a close ally of Sri.Kotnak Bheem Rao, the then Minister for Tribal Welfare and M.L.A of Khanapur, has got the persuasion done for the caste through the local Minister. Sri.Gaddenna also personally told me that he has done tremendous work for Yellapus.


Justice Puttuswamy Commission was appointed to enquire in to the genuineness of including the caste in to the B.Cs. he has verified the details at a length. He first visited the Korutla and metpally in Karimnagar district. My father told that Commission questioned the women during the tour of Karmnagar that what is your caste? Women, who were making Beedis, replied that vellithe Yellapulu lekapothe Gulapulu(If they are rich they lead the pompous life. If they have no money, they are like servants).This answer has impressed the Justice a lot and he told in Khanapur that they told rightly.

During the tour the lead was taken by my father Sri.B.Ganga Ram and Venka Rao, the then surpunch Surjapur. The then Tahasildar, Khanapur Sri. Gangadhar, a close friend of my father has taken the Commission to Surjapur. He has verified in the field and found that all are dependent on the Agriculture. Some other fellow B.Cs were also called (I remember even it took place in year 1994). They accepted to state that Yellapus are belongs to Backward Classes only. Later Sri.K.V.Kishan Rao is also stated before the Commission that Yellapus have migrated from Bobbili along with us and they are belongs to B.C. Community. This is a clear combined effort of many people, which is a rarity in the Telangana area.

Finally, Government of Andhra Pradesh has issued a G.O.M.S.No.61, BCW (M) Dept., dated 5-12-1996 including the Yellapus into the B.Cs. I remember even prior to that the status of B.Cs was accepted in Adilabad district.

• It has brought the cheer in students and unemployed. Students accessed the scholarships. Unemployed got the jobs.
• It has also increased the literacy rate in the caste.
• This brought the social change, as these people have got the jobs, by leaving their entire ego and mingled with others.
• Economically, many people have reached to the strata of middle class by virtue of accessing different facilities.
• Some people have become doctors and now either they are self employed or working under others.
• Some people even went to the foreign countries for education and employment after their engineering, after accessing the reservation.
• People started getting the Gr-2 jobs also. In future there is possibility of accessing the Gr-1 jobs and All India Service Jobs.
Lessons to be learnt

• No person has joined the post of All India Services, which is to be seriously thought of.
• There is lacking of unity among the caste, which was delivered during revival of B.C. Certificate. No hostel is constructed or hired for students for their convenience.
• Karimnagar people have to mingle with the people of fellow B.Cs and fight for their problems, to have confidence on them. Again not issuing the caste certificate has started in that district.
• It is fact that far better people like kalingas and palegars are present in the same category. But they do not get the opposition in their region. They exploit all the jobs of B.C (A) Community. But, Yellapus get opposition in karimnagar district because they mingle with velamas than with other B.C. castes. In contra, Adilabad has up kept the tradition of mingling with other castes.

  1. Oral stories of yellapu caste elders.
  2. Oral stories of dependent castes of yellapu.
  3. Oral stories of Velamas.
  4. Wikipedia.
  5. Indian History- K.Krishna Reddy.
  6. Modern Karimnagar History
  7. Personal observation of author on present trends.
  8. B.C. welfare department website.